Schematic | Circuit guide | Manual Wiring diagram | Electronic

1999 2000 Porsche 911 Carrera Electrical Wiring Diagram

Posted by merzaha gulhku Thursday, October 10, 2013 0 comments
1999-2000 Porsche 911 Carrera Electrical Wiring Diagram
The Part of 1999-2000 Porsche 911 Carrera Electrical Wiring Diagram: Porsche stability management., tiptronic,sun roof, convertible top drive, sensor overturn,  engine fuel ignition system, alarm system, ground points, cruise control, airbag, radio, telephone circuit, spoiler extend, interior monitoring, radio remote control, anti drive off lock, antilock brake system, power supply, parking assistant, central locking system, motronic, electronic gasoline, infosystem navigation, memory seat and mirror, etc.

Headphone Amplifier Using Discrete Components

Posted by merzaha gulhku Wednesday, October 9, 2013 0 comments

An amplifier to drive low to medium impedance headphones built using discrete components.

Both halves of the circuit are identical. Both inputs have a dc path to ground via the input 47k control which should be a dual log type potentiometer. The balance control is a single 47k linear potentiometer, which at center adjustment prevents even attenuation to both left and right input signals. If the balance control is moved towards the left side, the left input track has less resistance than the right track and the left channel is reduced more than the right side and vice versa. The preceding 10k resitors ensure that neither input can be "shorted" to earth.

Circuit diagram:

headphone amplifier circuit diagram

Headphone Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Amplification of the audio signal is provided by a single stage common emitter amplifier and then via a direct coupled emitter follower. Overall gain is less than 10 but the final emitter follower stage will directly drive 8 ohm headphones. Higher impedance headphones will work equally well. Note the final 2k2 resistor at each output. This removes the dc potential from the 2200u coupling capacitors and prevents any "thump" being heard when headphones are plugged in. The circuit is self biasing and designed to work with any power supply from 6 to 20 Volts DC.

Source : www.extremecircuits.net

Bipolar Stepper Motor Control

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First, we want to explain how such a controller works and what’s involved. A bipolar motor has two windings, and thus four leads. Each winding can carry a positive current, a negative current or no current. This is indicated in Table 1 by a ‘+’, a ‘–‘ or a blank. A binary counter (IC1) receives clock pulses, in response to which it counts up or down (corresponding to the motor turning to the left or the right). The counter increments on the positive edge of the pulse applied to the clock input if the up/down input is at the supply level, and it decrements if the up/down input is at earth level.

Bipolar Stepper Motor Control circuit diagramThe state of the counter is decoded to produce the conditions listed in Table 2. Since it must be possible to reverse the direction of the current in the winding, each winding must be wired into a bridge circuit. This means that four transistors must be driven for each winding. Only diagonally opposed transistors may be switched on at any given time, since otherwise short circuits would occur. At first glance, Table 2 appears incorrect, since there seem to always be four active intervals. However, you should consider that a current flows only when a and c are both active. The proper signals are generated by the logic circuitry, and each winding can be driven by a bridge circuit consisting of four BC517 transistors.

table 1Two bridge circuits are needed, one for each winding. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that there is a large voltage drop across the upper transistors in particular (which are Darlingtons in this case). This means that there is not much voltage left for the winding, especially with a 5-V supply. It is thus better to use a different type of bridge circuit, with PNP transistors in the upper arms. This of course means that the drive signals for the upper transistors must be reversed. We thus need an inverted signal in place of 1a. Fortunately, this is available in the form of 1d.

table 2The same situation applies to 1b (1c), 2a (2d) and 2b (2c). In this case, IC4 is not necessary. Stepper motors are often made to work with 12V. The logic ICs can handle voltages up to 15 to 18 V, so that using a supply voltage of 12 V or a bit higher will not cause any problems. With a supply voltage at this level, the losses in the bridge circuits are also not as significant. However, you should increase the resistor values (to 22 kΩ, for example). You should preferably use the same power supply for the motor and the controller logic. This is because all branches of the bridge circuit will conduct at the same time in the absence of control signals, which yields short-circuits.

Meter Adaptor With Symmetrical Input

Posted by merzaha gulhku Tuesday, October 8, 2013 0 comments
In contrast to an ordinary voltmeter, the input of an oscilloscope generally has one side (GND) connected to ground via the mains lead. In certain situations this can be very problematic. When the measuring probe is connected to a circuit that is also connected to ground, there is a chance that a short is introduced in the circuit. That the circuit, and hence the measurement, is affected by this is the least of your problems. If you were taking measurements from high current or high voltage (valve equipment) circuits, the out-come could be extremely dangerous! Fortunately it is not too difficult to get round this problem.

All you have to do is make the input to the oscilloscope float with respect to ground. The instrumentation amplifier shown here does that, and functions as an attenuator as well. The AD621 from Analog Devices amplifies the input by a factor of 10, and a switch at the input gives a choice of 3 ranges. A ‘GND’ position has also been included, to calibrate the zero setting of the oscilloscope. The maximum input voltage at any setting may never exceed 600 VAC. Make sure that R1 and R8 have a working voltage of at least 600 V. You could use two equal resistors connected in series for these, since 300 V types are more easily obtainable.

Meter Adapter With Symmetrical Input circuit schematic

You should also make sure that all resistors have a tolerance of 1% or better. Other specifications for the AD621 are: with an amplification of 10 times the CMRR is 110 dB and the bandwidth is 800 kHz. If you can’t find the AD621 locally, the AD620 is a good alternative. However, the bandwidth is then limited to about 120 kHz. The circuit can be housed inside a metal case with a mains supply, but also works perfectly well when powered from two 9V batteries. The current consumption is only a few milliamps. You could also increase R9 to 10 k to reduce the power consumption a bit more.

Circuit Park Aid

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Three LEDs signal bumper-barrier distance, Infra-red operation, indoor use
This circuit was designed as an aid in parking the car near the garage wall when backing up. LED D7 illuminates when bumper-wall distance is about 20 cm., D7+D6 illuminate at about 10 cm. and D7+D6+D5 at about 6 cm. In this manner you are alerted when approaching too close to the wall. All distances mentioned before can vary, depending on infra-red transmitting and receiving LEDs used and are mostly affected by the color of the reflecting surface. Black surfaces lower greatly the device sensitivity. Obviously, you can use this circuit in other applications like liquids level detection, proximity devices etc.

Park-Aid Circuit DiagramParts:

R1_____________10K 1/4W Resistor
R2,R5,R6,R9_____1K 1/4W Resistors
R3_____________33R 1/4W Resistor
R4,R11__________1M 1/4W Resistors
R7______________4K7 1/4W Resistor
R8______________1K5 1/4W Resistor
R10,R12-R14_____1K 1/4W Resistors
C1,C4___________1µF 63V Electrolytic or Polyester Capacitors
C2_____________47pF 63V Ceramic Capacitor
C3,C5_________100µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitors
D1_____________Infra-red LED
D2_____________Infra-red Photo Diode (see Notes)
D3,D4________1N4148 75V 150mA Diodes
D5-7___________LEDs (Any color and size)
IC1_____________555 Timer IC
IC2___________LM324 Low Power Quad Op-amp
IC3____________7812 12V 1A Positive voltage regulator IC

Circuit operation:

IC1 forms an oscillator driving the infra-red LED by means of 0.8mSec. pulses at 120Hz frequency and about 300mA peak current. D1 & D2 are placed facing the car on the same line, a couple of centimeters apart, on a short breadboard strip fastened to the wall. D2 picks-up the infra-red beam generated by D1 and reflected by the surface placed in front of it. The signal is amplified by IC2A and peak detected by D4 & C4. Diode D3, with R5 & R6, compensates for the forward diode drop of D4. A DC voltage proportional to the distance of the reflecting object and D1 & D2 feeds the inverting inputs of three voltage comparators. These comparators switch on and off the LEDs, referring to voltages at their non-inverting inputs set by the voltage divider resistor chain R7-R10.

Circuit modification:

A circuit modification featuring an audible alert instead of the visual one is available here: Park-Aid Modification

Notes:
  • Power supply must be regulated (hence the use of IC3) for precise reference voltages. The circuit can be fed by a commercial wall plug-in adapter, having a DC output voltage in the range 12-24V.
  • Current drawing: LEDs off 40mA; all LEDs on 60mA @ 12V DC supply.
  • The infra-red Photo Diode D2, should be of the type incorporating an optical sunlight filter: these components appear in black plastic cases. Some of them resemble TO92 transistors: in this case, please note that the sensitive surface is the curved, not the flat one.
  • Avoid sun or artificial light hitting directly D1 & D2.
  • If your car has black bumpers, you can line-up the infra-red diodes with the (mostly white) license or number plate.
  • It is wiser to place all the circuitry near the infra-red LEDs in a small box. The 3 signaling LEDs can be placed far from the main box at an height making them well visible by the car driver.
  • The best setup is obtained bringing D2 nearer to D1 (without a reflecting object) until D5 illuminates; then moving it a bit until D5 is clearly off. Usually D1-D2 optimum distance lies in the range 1.5-3 cm.
  • If you are needing a simpler circuit of this kind driving a LED or a relay, click Infra-red Level Detector

3V Supply Splitter

Posted by merzaha gulhku Monday, October 7, 2013 0 comments
Many modern circuits tend to work from a single supply voltage of 3V. But often they need a virtual earth at half the supply voltage for efficient operation. The splitter shown in the diagram bisects the supply voltage with a high-resistance potential divider, R1-R2, and buffers the resulting 1.5 V line with an op amp. Since the op amp used is not a fast type, the output is decoupled by capacitive divider C2-C3. This ensures that the impedance of the virtual earth point remains low over a wide frequency band. Because the potential at the junction C2-C3-R3 is fed back to the inverting input of IC1, the circuit becomes a standard voltage follower.

Resistor R3 ensures that the regulation remains stable. The circuit can regulate ±2mA without any difficulties. Because of the low current drawn by IC1, and the high resistance of R1 and R2, the overall current drain is low. In the absence of a load, it was 13µA in the prototype, of which 1.5µA flows through R1-R2. Finally, since IC1 can operate from a voltage as low as 1.6V, the splitter will remain fully operational when the battery nears the end of its charge or life.

Petrol Gas Switch For A Pajero

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My current vehicle, a Pajero, was modified for dual fuel - ie, petrol and gas. However, its necessary to run the vehicle on petrol at regular intervals to stop the injectors from clogging up. This simple circuit allows the vehicle to be started using petrol and then automatically switches it to gas when the speed exceeds 45km/h and the brake pedal is pressed. Alternatively, the vehicle may be run on petrol simply by switching the existing petrol/gas switch to petrol. You can also start the vehicle on gas by pressing the brake pedal while starting the vehicle. The circuit is based on an LM324 dual op amp, with both op amps wired as comparators. It works like this: IC1a buffers the signal from the vehicles speed sensor and drives an output filter network (D1, a 560kO resistor and a 10µF capacitor) to produce a DC voltage thats proportional to the vehicles speed.

Circuit diagram:

petrol-gas-switch-for-a-pajero Circuit

This voltage is then applied to pin 5 of IC1b and compared with the voltage set by trimpot VR1. When pin 7 of IC1b goes high, transistor Q1 turns on. This also turns on transistor Q2 when the brake pedal is pressed (pressing the brake pedal applies +12V from the brake light circuit to Q2s emitter). And when Q2 turns on, relay 1 turns on and its contacts switch to the gas position. Trimpot VR1 must be adjusted so that IC1bs pin 7 output switches high when the desired trigger speed is reached (ie, 45km/h). In effect, the speed signal is ANDed with the brake light signal to turn on the relay. The vehicle has been running this circuit for several years now and is still running well, with no further injector cleans required.

Author: J. Malnar - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics

Source : www.extremecircuits.net

Computer Off Switch

Posted by merzaha gulhku Sunday, October 6, 2013 0 comments
How often does it happen that you close down Windows and then forget to turn off the computer? This circuit does that automatically. After Windows is shut down there is a ‘click’ a second later and the PC is disconnected from the mains. Surprisingly enough, this switch fits in some older computer cases. If the circuit doesn’t fit then it will have to be housed in a separate enclosure. That is why a supply voltage of 5 V was selected. This voltage can be obtained from a USB port when the circuit has to be on the outside of the PC case.

It is best to solder the mains wires straight onto the switch and to insulate them with heat shrink sleeving. C8 is charged via D1. This is how the power supply voltage for IC1 is obtained. A square wave oscillator is built around IC1a, R1 and C9, which drives inverters IC1c to f. The frequency is about 50 kHz. The four inverters in parallel power the voltage multiplier, which has a multiplication of 3, and is built from C1 to C3 and D2 to D5. This is used to charge C5 to C7 to a voltage of about 9 V.

The generated voltage is clearly lower than the theoretical 3x4.8=14.4 V, because some voltage is lost across the PN-junctions of the diodes. C5 to C7 form the buffer that powers the coil of the switch when switching off. The capacitors charge up in about two seconds after switching on. The circuit is now ready for use. When Windows is closed down, the 5-V power supply voltage disappears. C4 is discharged via R2 and this results in a ‘0’ at the input of inverter IC1b. The output then becomes a ‘1’, which causes T1 to turn on.

computer off switch circuit schematic

A voltage is now applied to the coil in the mains switch and the power supply of the PC is turned off. T1 is a type BSS295 because the resistance of the coil is only 24R. When the PC is switched on, the circuit draws a peak current of about 200 mA, after which the current consumption drops to about 300 µA. The current when switching on could be higher because this is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the 5-V power supply and the supply rails in the PC. There isn’t much to say about the construction of the circuit itself.

The only things to take care with are the mains wires to the switch. The mains voltage may not appear at the connections to the coil. That is why there has to be a distance of at least 6 mm between the conductors that are connected to the mains and the conductors that are connected to the low-voltage part of the circuit.

Telephone call Voice Changer

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Voice manipulation device specially intended for props, 9V Battery operation


Although this kind of voice effect can be obtained by means of some audio computer programs, a few correspondents required a stand-alone device, featuring microphone input and line or loudspeaker outputs. This design fulfills these requirements by means of a variable gain microphone preamplifier built around IC1A, a variable steep Wien-bridge pass-band filter centered at about 1KHz provided by IC1B and an audio amplifier chip (IC2) driving the loudspeaker.

Parts:
P1______________10K Log. Potentiometer
R1,R10__________10K 1/4W Resistors
R2_______________1K 1/4W Resistor
R3______________50K 1/2W Trimmer Cermet or Carbon
R4,R6,R7,R14___100K 1/4W Resistors
R5______________47K 1/4W Resistor
R8______________68K 1/4W Resistor
R9_______________2K2 1/2W Trimmer Cermet or Carbon
R11_____________33K 1/4W Resistor
R12_____________18K 1/4W Resistor
R13_____________15K 1/4W Resistor
C1,C2,C3,C8,C9_100nF 63V Polyester Capacitors
C4______________10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C5_____________220nF 63V Polyester Capacitor (Optional, see Notes)
C6_______________4n7 63V Polyester Capacitor
C7______________10nF 63V Polyester Capacitor
C10____________220µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
IC1___________LM358 Low Power Dual Op-amp
IC2_________TDA7052 Audio power amplifier IC
MIC1__________Miniature electret microphone
SPKR______________8 Ohm Small Loudspeaker
SW1____________DPDT Toggle or Slide Switch
SW2,SW3________SPST Toggle or Slide Switches
J1____________6.3mm or 3mm Mono Jack socket
B1_______________9V PP3 Battery (See Notes) Clip for PP3 Battery

Notes:
  • The pass-band filter can be bypassed by means of SW1A and B: in this case, a non-manipulated microphone signal will be directly available at the line or loudspeaker outputs after some amplification through IC1A.
  • R3 sets the gain of the microphone preamp. Besides setting the microphone gain, this control can be of some utility in adding some amount of distortion to the signal, thus allowing a more realistic imitation of a telephone call voice.
  • R9 is the steep control of the pass-band filter. It should be used with care, in order to avoid excessive ringing when filter steepness is approaching maximum value.
  • P1 is the volume control and SW2 will switch off amplifier and loudspeaker if desired.
  • C5 is optional: it will produce a further band reduction. Some people think the resulting effect is more realistic if this capacitor is added.
  • If the use of an external, moving-coil microphone is required, R1 must be omitted, thus fitting a suitable input jack.
  • This circuit was intended to be powered by a 9V PP3 battery, but any dc power supply in the 6 - 12V range can be used successfully.

555 DC DC Converter

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It is all too often necessary to augment the power supply of an existing electronic circuit because exactly the voltage that you need is missing. The circuit presented here may provide a solution in a number of cases, since it can be used to convert a single-ended supply voltage into a balanced set of supply voltages. That’s not so remarkable by itself, but the special feature of this circuit is that this is accomplished without using difficult to obtain, exotic ICs. All of the components used in the circuit are ones that every electronics hobbyist is likely to have in a drawer somewhere.

The heart of the circuit is formed by an ‘old reliable’ 555 timer, which is wired here as a free-running oscillator with a frequency of approximately 160 kHz. The oscillator is followed by two voltage-doubling rectifiers, consisting of C1, D1, D2, C3 and C7, D3, D4, C5. They are followed in turn by two voltage regulators to stabilise the positive and negative voltages generated in this manner. The duty cycle of the 555 is set to approximately 50 percent using R1 and R2. The square-wave signal at the output of the timer IC has a DC offset, which is eliminated by C4 and R3.

The amplitude of the output signal from the 555 is approximately equal to the supply voltage less 1.5 V, so with a 12-V input voltage, there will be a square-wave signal on pin 3 with an amplitude of approximately 10.5 Vpp. With respect to ground (across R3), this is this +5 V / –5 V. Although this yields a symmetric voltage, its positive and negative amplitudes are somewhat too small and it is not stabilized. In order to split the square-wave signal into sufficiently large positive and negative amplitudes, C1/D2 are added for the positive voltage, causing the positive half to be doubled in amplitude.

For the negative half, the same effect is achieved using C7/D3. Following this, the two signals are smoothed by D1/C3 and D4/C5, respectively. Both voltages are now high enough to be input to normal 5-V voltage regulators, yielding symmetric +5V and –5V supply voltages at the output. The input voltage does not have to be regulated, although it must lie between +11V and +18V. The maximum output current is ±50mA with an input voltage of 12V. This circuit is an excellent choice for generating auxiliary voltages, such as supply voltages for low-power opamps. Naturally, the fact that the converter can be powered from the in-vehicle voltage of a car is a rather attractive feature.

Treble Tone Control

Posted by merzaha gulhku Saturday, October 5, 2013 0 comments

The treble control works in a similar manner as the bass control elsewhere in this site, but contains several modifications, of course. One of these is the series network C1-C2– R1– R1 1. The d.c. operating point of IC3 is set with resistors R12 and R13. To ensure that these resistors do not (adversely) affect the control characteristics, they are coupled to the junction of R9 and R1 0. In this way they only affect the low-frequency noise and the load of the opamp. Their value of 10 kΩ is a reasonable compromise. The functions of switches S1– S3 are identical to those of their counterparts in the bass tone control; their influence is seen clearly in the characteristics.

Circuit diagram:

Treble_Tone_Control_Circuit_Diagramw

Treble Tone Control Circuit Diagram

Good symmetry between the left-hand and right-hand channels is obtained by the use of 1% versions of R1– R1 3 and C1, C2. The value of resistors R2– R1 0 is purposely different from that of their counterparts in the bass tone control. In the present circuit, the control range starts above 20 kHz. To make sure that a control range of 1 0 dB is available at 20 kHz, the nominal amplification is 3.5 (11 dB ). The control circuit draws a current of about ±10 mA.

Source : www.extremecircuits.net

Pump Controller For Solar Hot Water System

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This circuit optimizes the operation of a solar hot water system. When the water in the solar collector is hotter than the storage tank, the pump runs. The circuit comprises two LM335Z temperature sensors, a comparator and Mosfet. Sensor 1 connects to the solar collector panel while Sensor 2 connects to the hot water panel. Each sensor includes a trimpot to allow adjustment of the output level. In practice, VR1 and VR2 are adjusted so that both Sensor 1 and Sensor 2 have the same output voltage when they are at the same temperature. The Sensor outputs are monitored using comparator IC1.

When Sensor 1 produces a higher voltage than Sensor 2, which means that sensor 1 is at a higher temperature, pin 1 of IC1 goes high and drives the gate of Mosfet Q1. This in turn drives the pump motor. IC1 includes hysteresis so that the output does not oscillate when both sensors are producing a similar voltage. Hysteresis comprises the 1MO feedback resistor between output pin 1 and non-inverting input pin 3 and the input 1kO resistor. This provides a nominal 12mV hysteresis so that voltage at Sensor 1 or Sensor 2 must differ by 12mV for changes in the comparator output to occur.

Pump controller for solar hot water system circuit schematic

Since the outputs of Sensor 1 and Sensor 2 change by about 10mV/°C, we could say that there is a degree of hysteresis in the comparator. Note that IC1 is a dual comparator with the second unit unused. Its inputs are tied to ground and pin 2 of IC1 respectively. This sets the pin 7 output high. Since the output is an open collector, it will be at a high impedance. Mosfet Q1 is rated at 60A and 60V and is suitable for driving inductive loads due to its avalanche suppression capability. This clamps any inductively induced voltages exceeding the voltage rating of the Mosfet.

The sensors are adjusted initially with both measuring the same temperature. This can be done at room temperature; adjust the trimpots so that the voltage between ground and the positive terminal reads the same for both sensors. If you wish, the sensors can be set to 10mV/°C change with the output referred to the Kelvin scale which is 273K at 0°C. So at 25°C, the sensor output should be set to (273 + 25 = 298) x 10mV or 2.98V.

Note:

The sensors will produce incorrect outputs if their leads are exposed to moisture and they should be protected with some neutral cure silicone sealant. The sensors can be mounted by clamping them directly to the outside surface of the solar collector and on an uninsulated section of the storage tank. The thermostat housing is usually a good position on the storage tank.

Cat And Dog Repellent

Posted by merzaha gulhku Friday, October 4, 2013 0 comments
The electronic dog repellent circuit diagram below is a high output ultrasonic transmitter which is primarily intended to act as a dog and cat repeller, which can be used individuals to act as a deterrent against some animals. It should NOT be relied upon as a defence against aggressive dogs but it may help distract them or encourage them to go away and do not consider this as an electronic pest repeller. The ultrasonic dog repellant uses a standard 555 timer IC1 set up as an oscillator using a single RC network to give a 40 kHz square wave with equal mark/space ratio.

This frequency is above the hearing threshold for humans but is known to be irritating frequency for dog and cats. Since the maximum current that a 555 timer can supply is 200mA an amplifier stage was required so a high-power H-bridge network was devised, formed by 4 transistors TR1 to TR4. A second timer IC2 forms a buffer amplifier that feeds one input of the H-bridge driver, with an inverted waveform to that of IC1 output being fed to the opposite input of the H-bridge.

This means that conduction occurs through the complementary pairs of TR1/TR4 and TR2/TR3 on alternate marks and spaces, effectively doubling the voltage across the ultrasonic transducer, LS1. This is optimised to generate a high output at ultrasonic frequencies. This configuration was tested by decreasing the frequency of the oscillator to an audible level and replacing the ultrasonic transducer with a loudspeaker; the results were astounding. If the dog repellent circuit was fed by a bench power supply rather than a battery that restrict the available current, the output reached 110dB with 4A running through the speaker which is plenty loud enough!

The Dog and Cat repellent was activated using a normal open switch S1 to control the current consumption, but many forms of automatic switching could be used such as pressure sensitive mats, light beams or PIR sensors. Thus it could be utilize as part of a dog or cat deterrent system to help prevent unwanted damage to gardens or flowerbeds, or a battery powered version can be carried for portable use. Consider also using a lead-acid battery if desired, and a single chip version could be built using the 556 dual timer IC to save space and improve battery life.

USB Powered PIC Programmer

Posted by merzaha gulhku Thursday, October 3, 2013 0 comments
This simple circuit can be used to program the PIC16F84 and similar "flash memory" type parts. It uses a cheap 555 timer IC to generate the programming voltage from a +5V rail, allowing the circuit to be powered from a computer’s USB port. The 555 timer (IC1) is configured as a free-running oscillator, with a frequency of about 6.5kHz. The output of the timer drives four 100nF capacitors and 1N4148 diodes wir-ed in a Cockroft-Walton voltage multiplier configuration.

USB-Powered PIC Programmer circuit schematic

The output of the multiplier is switched through to the MCLR/Vpp pin of the PIC during programming via a 4N28 optocoupler. Diodes ZD1 and D5 between the MCLR/Vpp pin and ground clamp the output of the multiplier to about 13.6V, ensuring that the maximum input voltage (Vihh) of the PIC is not exceeded. A 100kΩ resistor pulls the pin down to a valid logic low level (Vil) when the optocoupler is not conducting. The circuit is compatible with the popular "JDM" programmer, so can be used with supporting software such as "ICProg" (see http://www.ic-prog.com).

Lights On!

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This circuit ensures that you will never again forget to switch on the lights of your car. As soon as the engine is running, the dipped beams and the sidelights are automatically switched on. The circuit also causes the dipped beams to be extinguished as soon as the main beams are switched on. As you can see from the schematic diagram, no special components are needed. When the engine is running, the alternator will generate a voltage of more than 14 V. Diode D1 reduces this voltage by 5.6 V and passes it to the base of T1 via R1. Due to the resulting current, T1 conducts. The amplified current flows via R3, the base of T3 and D3 to ground. This causes T3 to also conduct and energize relay Re1.

Lights On Circuit DiagramIf the driver now switches on the main beams, a current flows through D2 and R2 into the base of T2, causing this transistor to conduct. As a result, the voltage on the base of T3 drops, causing T3 to cut off and the relay to drop out. When the main beams are switched off, the previous situation is restored, and the relay again engages. The dipped beams and the sidelights are switched by the contacts of relay Re1. Diodes D5 and D6 ensure that the sidelights are illuminated if either the dimmed beams or the main beams are switched on. In practice, this means that the sidelights will be on whenever the engine is running, regardless of whether the main beams are switched on.

Mini Portable Guitar Amplifier

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Can be fitted into a packet of cigarettes, Also suitable as Fuzz-box

This small amplifier was intended to be used in conjunction with an electric guitar to do some low power monitoring, mainly for practice, either via an incorporated small loudspeaker or headphones. The complete circuit, loudspeaker, batteries, input and output jacks can be encased in a small box having the dimensions of a packet of cigarettes, or it could be fitted also into a real packet of cigarettes like some ready-made units available on the market.
This design can be used in three different ways:

  • Loudspeaker amplifier: when powered by a 9V alkaline battery it can deliver about 1.5W peak output power to the incorporated loudspeaker.
  • Headphone amplifier or low power loudspeaker amplifier: when powered by a 3V battery (2x1.5V cells) it can drive any headphone set type at a satisfactory output power level or deliver to the incorporated loudspeaker about 60mW of output power. This configuration is useful for saving battery costs.
  • Fuzz-box: when powered by a 3V battery (2x1.5V cells) and having its output connected to a guitar amplifier input the circuit will behave as a good Fuzz-box, showing an output square wave with marked rounded corners, typical of valve-circuits output when driven into saturation.

Circuit diagram:

Mini Portable Guitar Amplifier

Mini Guitar Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Parts:

R1__________22K 1/4W Resistor
C1__________10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C2__________100nF 63V Polyester or Ceramic Capacitor
C3__________220µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
IC1_________TDA7052 Audio power amplifier IC
J1,J2_______6.3mm Stereo Jack sockets (switched)
SPKR_______8 Ohm Loudspeaker (See Notes)
B1_________9V PP3 Battery or 3V Battery (2 x 1.5V AA, AAA Cells in series etc.)
Clip for PP3 Battery or socket for 2 x 1.5V AA or AAA Cells

Notes:

  • For the sake of simplicity and compactness, this unit employs a dual bridge IC amplifier and a few other parts. For the same reason no volume or tone controls are provided as it is supposed that the controls already existing on the electric guitar will serve satisfactorily to the purpose.
  • No power switch is used: the battery voltage will be applied to the circuit when the input plug will be inserted in the input jack socket J1. For this purpose be sure that the input plug is a common 1/4 inch guitar mono jack plug and J1 is a 1/4 inch stereo jack socket.
  • The output jack socket J2 must be a switched stereo type. The changeover switching is arranged in such a way that, when a common headphones stereo jack plug is inserted into the socket, the loudspeaker will be disabled and the mono output signal will drive both the headsets in series, allowing full headphone reproduction. When used as a Fuzz-box output, a mono jack plug must be inserted into J2.
  • If the amplifier is intended to be encased in a packet of cigarettes, standard loudspeaker diameter should be 57 or 50mm.

Technical data:

Max output power: 1.5W @ 9V supply - 8 Ohm load; 60mW @ 3V supply - 8 Ohm load
Frequency response: Flat from 20Hz to 20kHz
Total harmonic distortion @ 100mW output: 0.2%
Max input voltage @ 3V supply: 8mV RMS
Minimum input voltage for Fuzz-box operation: 18mV RMS @ 3V supply
Current consumption @ 400mW and 9V supply: 200mA
Current consumption @ 250mW and 9V supply: 150mA
Current consumption @ 60mW and 3V supply: 80mA
Quiescent current consumption: 6mA @ 9V, 4mA @ 3V supply
Fuzz-box current consumption: 3mA @ 3V supply

Copyright: www.redcircuits.com

Inductorless 3 5 Volts Converter

Posted by merzaha gulhku Wednesday, October 2, 2013 0 comments
By configuring a comparator and a transistor to control the oscillator in a charge pump circuit, you enable the pump to generate a regulated output of in principle any desired value. Charge pump ICs can either invert or double an input voltage (for example, 3 V to –3 V or 3 V to 6 V). The charge pump itself does not regulate the output voltage and one running off 3 V is not normally capable of generating intermediate output voltage levels like 5 V. However, by adding a comparator and a reference device, you can create arbitrary output levels like 5 V and regulate them as well. Charge pump IC1 (a MAX660) has an internal oscillator whose 45 kHz operation transfers charge from C1 to C2, causing the regulated output to rise.
Inductorless 3-to-5 Volts Converter circuit schematic

When the feedback voltage (pin 3 of IC2) exceeds 1.18 V, the output of comparator IC2 (a MAX921) goes high, turning off the oscillator via T1. The comparator hysteresis (easily added on IC2) is zero here simply because no hysteresis is required in the control loop. The oscillator when enabled generates two cycles, which is sufficient to drive VOUT slightly above the desired level. Next, the feedback turns the oscillator off again. The resulting output ripple will depend mainly on the input voltage and the output load current. Output ripple may be reduced at the expense of circuit efficiency by adding a small resistor (say, 1 ?) in series with C1. You’ll find that ripple also depends on the value and ESR associated with C1 - smaller values of C1 transfer less charge to C2, producing smaller jumps in V OUT.

Mini Portable Guitar Amplifier

Posted by merzaha gulhku 0 comments

Can be fitted into a packet of cigarettes Also suitable as Fuzz-box

This small amplifier was intended to be used in conjunction with an electric guitar to do some low power monitoring, mainly for practice, either via an incorporated small loudspeaker or headphones.

The complete circuit, loudspeaker, batteries, input and output jacks can be encased in a small box having the dimensions of a packet of cigarettes, or it could be fitted also into a real packet of cigarettes like some ready-made units available on the market.

Circuit diagram:

MiniGuitarAmp Mini Portable Guitar Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Parts Description
R1 22K 1/4W Resistor
C1 10µF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor
C2 100nF 63V Polyester or Ceramic Capacitor
C3 220µF 25V Electrolytic Capacito
IC1 TDA7052 Audio power amplifier IC
J1,J2 6.3mm Stereo Jack sockets (switched)
SPKR 8 Ohm Loudspeaker (See Notes)
B1 9V PP3 Battery or 3V Battery (2 x 1.5V AA, AAA Cells in series etc.)
Clip for PP3 Battery or socket for 2 x 1.5V AA or AAA Cells

This design can be used in three different ways:

  • Loudspeaker amplifier: when powered by a 9V alkaline battery it can deliver about 1.5W peak output power to the incorporated loudspeaker.
  • Headphone amplifier or low power loudspeaker amplifier: when powered by a 3V battery (2x1.5V cells) it can drive any headphone set type at a satisfactory output power level or deliver to the incorporated loudspeaker about 60mW of output power. This configuration is useful for saving battery costs.
  • Fuzz-box: when powered by a 3V battery (2x1.5V cells) and having its output connected to a guitar amplifier input the circuit will behave as a good Fuzz-box, showing an output square wave with marked rounded corners, typical of valve-circuits output when driven into saturation.

Notes:

  • For the sake of simplicity and compactness, this unit employs a dual bridge IC amplifier and a few other parts. For the same reason no volume or tone controls are provided as it is supposed that the controls already existing on the electric guitar will serve satisfactorily to the purpose.
  • No power switch is used: the battery voltage will be applied to the circuit when the input plug will be inserted in the input jack socket J1. For this purpose be sure that the input plug is a common 1/4 inch guitar mono jack plug and J1 is a 1/4 inch stereo jack socket.
  • The output jack socket J2 must be a switched stereo type. The changeover switching is arranged in such a way that, when a common headphones stereo jack plug is inserted into the socket, the loudspeaker will be disabled and the mono output signal will drive both the headsets in series, allowing full headphone reproduction. When used as a Fuzz-box output, a mono jack plug must be inserted into J2.
  • If the amplifier is intended to be encased in a packet of cigarettes, standard loudspeaker diameter should be 57 or 50mm.

Source:www.redcircuits.com

AUTOMATIC INTRUDER ALARM ELECTRONIC DIAGRAM

Posted by merzaha gulhku Tuesday, October 1, 2013 0 comments
A timed Bell/Siren Cut-Off. It’s designed to be used with the usual types of normally-closed input devices such as – magnetic reed contacts – micro switches – foil tape – and PIRs.

LED Brake Rear Light Specifically for motorcycles Circuit diagram

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LEDs are used more and more in motor vehicles, replacing the standard incandescent lamps because they are more energy efficient and have a much longer life expectancy. In this article we describe a simple LED tail light that has been specifically designed for motorcycles, scooters and mopeds. There appears to be a significant need among motorcyclists for rear lights with LEDs, as evidenced by the many messages on this topic that turn up in various internet forums. The circuits that accompany these messages are often very rudimentary and therefore not very robust.

Mini project:


When designing an LED light for a motorcycle the following criteria need to be considered:

• Large variations of on-board voltage, this has a significant influence on light intensity.
• The circuit has to be (mechanically) robust.
• High light output is required (visibility = safety).
• Clearly visible difference in light intensity between rear light and brake light function.

After reading some of the literature concerning the use of LEDs in motor vehicles, it appears that the most common reason why LEDs still fail is the incorrect and/or insufficient use of series resistors.
In poorly implemented circuits there are often a number of LEDs connected in parallel which are all fed from a single series resistor. Because of small variations between LEDs, one LED can quickly give up the ghost. This causes an increase in current through the remaining LEDs and can easily lead to a domino effect, ultimately resulting in the failure of the entire circuit.With high-intensity LEDs, a small variation in current is immediately obvious as a large variation in light output.

This has to be taken into account when designing a circuit. This is important because when the engine rev speed goes up, the on-board voltage increases significantly. It would appear that you were braking when you actually opened the throttle instead.LEDs need mainly a constant current.That is why most circuits choose to drive LEDs from a constant-current source.

Circuit

This circuit has been designed to operate both as a motorcycle rear light and as a brake light. This requires two different currents. Because the voltages measured on the author’s motorcycle varied from 10.5 to 15 V and because two different currents are required for the total of 17 high-intensity LEDs it was not possible to use only one constant-current source.

Circuit diagram:

The idea was to turn the strongly varying DC voltage into a nice constant voltage first and then turn that into a constant current through a number of series resistors. The problem that is highlighted in many forums is the fact that the signal for the brake light is a positive voltage. It would require a lot of work on the motorcycle to change this. That is why the decision was made for a de sign that regulates the voltage on the chassis side, with the aid of a negative voltage regulator, a 7908. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that an additional chassis wire is required; normally the minus side of the lamps is directly connected to the chassis of the motorcycle.

However, the advantage is that both the + from the rear light as well as the + from the brake light can be directly connected to the LEDs.The ‘lamp’ con sists of a centre part with nine round, red,5-mm LEDs (HLMP EG08 Y200) wi th positioned around that eight oval ,r e d L E D s HLMP AD61 of 5 mm.The round LEDs D12 through D20 which have qui te a narrow radi ation angle are connected in series in sets of 3. Three of the se ‘strings’ are connected in parallel and each string has its own series resistor.

The oval LEDs D4 to D11 which have a wide radiation pattern are connected with two in series, so there are therefore four strings connected in parallel. These ensure with their wide radiation angle of 110 degrees that the rear/brake-light is also clearly visible from the side.The oval and round strings are connected to the brake contact via diodes. When the brake is operated all the strings are presented with the +12V from the battery via the series resistors. The light intensity therefore depends on the current that flows as a result of the series resistor (and the voltage drop across the diodes).

When the brake is not operated, the LEDs strings are still connected to the positive voltage of the battery, but this time via additional resistors R1 and R2.Because of the value of these resistors,the current is much lower and therefore also the light intensity. The intensity of the brake light can be adjusted using the series resistors (R3 to R9) in each of the individual strings,the brightness of the rear light is selected with the additional series resistors R1 and R2.Diode D1 has been added to protect the circuit from reverse connection of the power supply voltage.Electrolytic capacitors finally provide filtering for the fairly large varying,and not so clean, voltage.

The circuit was built into a silver coloured tube by the author. The electronics are mounted on two pieces of prototyping board, one behind the other,in the tube. The front (visible) PCB holds the LEDs and the series resistors. The LEDs are arranged as indicated next to the schematic. The 9 round LEDs are mounted in the middle of the rear light in a square pattern. The oval LEDs are mounted in a circle around the square.

The second PCB contains the remaining parts and the regulator.You can modify the circuit to your heart’s content by adding more strings, each fitted with its own diode and two resistors (a series resistor such as R3) and a resistor to +12 V (such as R1).The total current (when braking), must not exceed the maximum rating of the voltage regulator, this amounts to 1 A.

Author : Marcel Ulrich Copyright : elektor